Chemical compounds used for non-lethal applications
include irritating and incapacitating agents, which can be dispersed
as aerosol or gel. Such compounds include the pepper aerosol (also
known as pepper spray or OC Oleoresin Capsicum) and various "tear
gases" such as CS (ortho-chlorobenzalmalononitrile) or CN (chloroacetophenone)
aerosols impact munitions. OC is considered to be more capable than
other irritants, as it has a faster response and longer effect.
Aerosols are dispersed from hand-held dispensers, launchable, hand
thrown or rifle grenades. Aerial delivery of such weapons is also
considered, deployed on helicopters or UAVs. Future aerial delivery
of non lethal chemical weapons is considered for mortar bombs,
artillery projectiles and barrage weapons (such as the Volcano mine
delivery system). With such applications, less than lethal weapons
could be deployed over extended ranges – a capability which is not
available today. Such munitions will be contained in frangible
cases, filled with incapacitating agents such as pepper spray.
Not all chemical agents
are delivered by aerosol. The sticky Pepper Gel is propelled out of
the storage canister by compressed air, stick to the target on
impact (when hitting the face, it will cause temporary blinding).
Since the gel can be deployed at longer distances, it can neutralize
assailants from a distance of 8 meters. The Pepper Gel formulae has
10% pepper formulation (same as OC) suspended in gel, it is not
flammable and will not ignite when affected by an electrical shock
(from Taser weapon, for example).