TOR-M1 surface-to-air missile system is a mobile, integrated
air defense system, designed for operation at medium-, low-
and very low –altitudes, against fixed/rotary wing aircraft,
UAVs, guided missiles and precision weapon. The system is capable
of operating in an intensive aerial jamming environment. The
system is comprised of a number of missile Transporter Launcher
Vehicle (TLV). A Russian air defense Tor battalion consists
of 3 - 5 companies, each equipped with four TLVs. Each TLV is
equipped with 8 ready to launch missiles, associating radars,
fire control systems and a battery command post. The combat
vehicle can operate autonomously, firing from stationary positions
or on the move. Set-up time is rated at 3 minutes and typical
reaction time, from target detection to missile launch is 5-8
seconds. Reaction time could range from 3.4 seconds for stationary
positions to 10 seconds while on the move. Each fire unit can
engage and launch missiles against two separate targets.
Tor M1 can detect and track up to 48 targets (minimum radar
cross section of 0.1 square meter) at a maximum range of 25
km, and engage two of them simultaneously, at a speed of up
to 700 m/sec, and at a distance of 1 to 12 km. The system's
high lethality (aircraft kill probability of 0.92-0.95) is maintained
at altitude of 10 – 6,000 m'. The vertically launched,
single-stage solid rocket propelled missile is capable of maneuvering
at loads up to 30gs. It is equipped with a 15kg high-explosive
fragmentation warhead activated by a proximity fuse. The system
is offered as fully integrated tracked combat vehicle, or as
a modular combat unit (TOR-M1T) comprising a truck mounted mobile
control module and launcher/antenna units, carried on a trailer.
Other configuration include separated towed systems, as well
as shelter-based systems, for the protection of fixed sites.
missile is also effective against precision guided weapons and
cruise missiles. In tests the missile demonstrated kill probability
of such targets ranging from 0.6 to 0.9.
The first operator of the Tor system was the Russian Army Air-Defense,
which operates 100 units of the SA-15 Gauntlet variant. The
Russian navy also uses the naval version known as SA-N-9. China
bought 50 systems and possibly 25 more, between 1997 and 2002.
The Greek army fielded 21 Tor M-1 systems. Most recently (December
2005) Iran was reported to sign a deal worth US$ 1.0 billion
covering the procurement of up to 29 TOR M-1 missile systems,
modernization of air-force systems and the supply of patrol
boats. The system was also proposed to several other countries.
The TOR component of the deal was reported to be US$700 million.
Deliveries of the TOR systems began in November
2006 and by the year's end, over half of the order has been
fulfilled. On January 16, 2007 Russia announced that deliveries
were completed. Russian defense minister Sergei
Ivanov confirmed the delivery and added that Moscow will
continue to develop military and technical cooperation with
Tehran. This could hint on further sales of S-300
air defense missiles, which were requested by Iran for several
years, but so-far denied by Russia. The delivery was completed
about 12 months ahead of time. According to the original schedule,
completion of deliveries were expected to continue through 2008.
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The Russian Press indicated on January
30, 2007 that Venezuela is also interesting in aquiring
Tor M1 systems at an estimated cost of US$290 million. Venezuela
plans to have the new systems interoperable with new radars
and fighter jets recently bought from China and Russia.